What is Needle Biopsy?
A needle biopsy is a procedure to obtain a sample of cells from your body for laboratory testing. Needle biopsy may be used to take tissue or fluid samples from muscles, bones, and other organs, such as the liver or lungs. Common types of needle biopsy techniques include:
- Fine Needle Aspiration: This type of needle biopsy uses a thin, hollow needle to draw cells from your body.
- Core Needle Biopsy: This type of needle biopsy uses a wider needle than fine-needle aspiration. The needle used during a core needle biopsy is a hollow tube that allows the doctor to extract a core of tissue for testing.
The sample from your needle biopsy may help your doctor determine what’s causing:
- A mass or lump: A needle biopsy may reveal whether a mass or lump is a cyst, an infection, a benign tumor or cancer.
- An infection: Analysis from a needle biopsy can help doctors determine what germs are causing an infection so that the most effective medications can be used.
- Inflammation: A needle biopsy sample may reveal what’s causing inflammation, and what types of cells are involved.
You may also undergo imaging tests, such as a computerized tomography (CT) scan or an ultrasound, before your needle biopsy. Sometimes these tests are also used during the needle biopsy procedure to more accurately locate the area to be biopsied.
BEFORE THE TEST
Most needle biopsy procedures don’t require any preparation on your part. However, you may be asked to stop taking blood-thinning medications, such as aspirin in the days before your biopsy. Depending on what part of your body will be biopsied, your doctor may ask you not to eat or drink before the procedure.
In certain cases, you may receive intravenous (IV) sedatives or general anesthetics before your needle biopsy. If this is the case, your doctor may ask that you fast the day before your procedure. Tell your doctor about any medications you’re taking, as you may need to stop taking certain medications before undergoing anesthesia.
You won’t be able to return to work immediately if your needle biopsy is done during IV sedation or general anesthesia. Depending on your duties, you may be able to return to work in 24 hours. Talk to your doctor about when it’s safe to return to work.
DURING THE TEST
Your healthcare team will position you in a way that makes it easy for the doctor to access the area where the needle will be inserted. You may be asked to lie flat on a table.
In certain cases, you may undergo imaging procedures, such as a CT scan or ultrasound. These allow your doctor to see the target area and plan the best way to proceed. Imaging procedures are sometimes done before your needle biopsy and sometimes performed during the biopsy. What type of imaging you’ll undergo, if any, will depend on what part of your body is being biopsied.
Your healthcare team will clean the area of your body where the needle will be inserted. An anesthetic may be injected into the skin around the area to numb it. In some cases, you’ll receive an IV sedative or other medication to relax you during the procedure. Sometimes general anesthesia is used during a needle biopsy. If this is the case, you’ll receive medications through a vein in your arm that will relax you and put you in a sleep-like state.
During the needle biopsy, the doctor guides a needle through your skin and into the area of interest. A sample of cells is collected and the needle is withdrawn. This process may be repeated several times until enough cells are collected.
You may experience mild discomfort during your needle biopsy, such as a sensation of pressure in the area. Tell your healthcare team if you’re feeling uncomfortable.
AFTER THE TEST
Once your doctor has collected enough cells or tissue for analysis, your needle biopsy procedure is complete. Your biopsy sample is sent to a laboratory for analysis. The results may be available in a few days, though more technical tests may require more time. Ask your doctor how long you can expect to wait.
Your healthcare team may apply a bandage over the area where the needle was inserted. You may be asked to apply pressure to the bandage for several minutes to ensure there is minimal bleeding.
In most cases, you can leave when your needle biopsy procedure is completed. Whether you can leave right away or whether you’ll need to stay for observation depends on what part of your body was biopsied. In some cases, your health care team may want to observe you for a few hours to ensure you don’t have complications from your biopsy. If you received an IV sedative or general anesthetic, you’ll be taken to a comfortable place to relax while the medication wears off.
Plan to take it easy for the rest of the day. Protect the area where you received the needle biopsy by keeping the bandage in place for as long as instructed. You may feel some mild pain or discomfort in the area, but this should resolve in a day or two.